FANDOM


DSM-IV

Disorders

Substance Use Disorders

  1. Substance Dependence
  2. Substance Abuse

Substance-Induced Disorders

  1. Substance Intoxication
  2. Substance Withdrawal
  3. Substance-Induced Mental Disorders
    1. Substance-Induced Delirium
    2. Substance-Induced Persisting Dementia
    3. Substance-Induced Persisting Amnestic Disorder
    4. Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder
    5. Substance-Induced Mood Disorder
    6. Substance-Induced Anxiety Disorder
    7. Substance-Induced Sexual Dysfunction
    8. Substance-Induced Sleep Disorder

Alcohol-Related Disorders

Alcohol Use Disorders

  1. Alcohol Dependence
  2. Alcohol Abuse

Alcohol-Induced Disorders

  1. Alcohol Intoxication
  2. Alcohol Withdrawal
  3. Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders

Alcohol-Related Disorder NOS

Amphetamine (or Amphetamine-Like)-Related Disorders

Amphetamine Use Disorders

  1. Amphetamine Dependence
  2. Amphetamine Abuse

Amphetamine-Induced Disorders

  1. Amphetamine Intoxication
  2. Amphetamine Withdrawal
  3. Other Amphetamine-Induced Disorders

Amphetamine-Related Disorder NOS

Caffeine-Related Disorders

Caffeine-Induced Disorders

  1. Caffeine Intoxication
  2. Other Caffeine-Induced Disorders

Caffeine-Related Disorder NOS

Cannabis-Related Disorders

Cannabis Use Disorders

  1. Cannabis Dependence
  2. Cannabis Abuse

Cannabis-Induced Disorders

  1. Cannabis Intoxication
  2. Other Cannabis-Induced Disorders

Cannabis-Related Disorder NOS

Cocaine-Related Disorders

Cocaine Use Disorders

  1. Cocaine Dependence
  2. Cocaine Abuse

Cocaine-Induced Disorders

  1. Cocaine Intoxication
  2. Cocaine Withdrawal
  3. Other Cocaine-Induced Disorders

Cocaine-Related Disorder NOS

Hallucinogen-Related Disorders

Hallucinogen Use Disorders

  1. Hallucinogen Dependence
  2. Hallucinogen Abuse

Hallucinogen-Induced Disorders

  1. Hallucinogen Intoxication
  2. Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (Flashbacks)
  3. Other Hallucinogen-Induced Disorders

Hallucinogen-Related Disorder NOS

Inhalant-Related Disorders

Inhalant Use Disorders

  1. Inhalant Dependence
  2. Inhalant Abuse

Inhalant-Induced Disorders

  1. Inhalant Intoxication
  2. Other Inhalant-Induced Disorders

Inhalant-Related Disorder NOS

Nicotine-Related Disorders

Nicotine Use Disorder

  1. Nicotine Dependence

Nicotine-Induced Disorder

  1. Nicotine Withdrawal

Nicotine-Related Disorder NOS

Opioid-Related Disorders

Opioid Use Disorders

  1. Opioid Dependence
  2. Opioid Abuse

Opioid-Induced Disorders

  1. Opioid Intoxication
  2. Opioid Withdrawal
  3. Other Opioid-Induced Disorders

Opioid-Related Disorder NOS

Phencyclidine (or Phencyclidine-Like)-Related Disorders

Phencyclidine Use Disorders

  1. Phencyclidine Dependence
  2. Phencyclidine Abuse

Phencyclidine-Induced Disorders

  1. Phencyclidine Intoxication
  2. Other Phencyclidine-Induced Disorders

Phencyclidine-Related Disorder NOS

Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Related Disorders

Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Use Disorders

  1. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Dependence
  2. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Abuse

Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Disorders

  1. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Intoxication
  2. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Withdrawal
  3. Other Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Disorders

Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Related Disorder NOS

Polysubstance-Related Disorder

  1. Polysubstance Dependence

Other (or Unknown) Substance-Related Disorders

Recording Procedures

For drugs of abuse

The clinician should record the name of the specific substance rather than the name of the class. For example, the clinician should record Secobarbital Withdrawal (rather than Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Withdrawal) or Methamphetamine Abuse (rather than Amphetamine Abuse). If the substance taken by the individual is unknown, the substance should be recorded as Unknown (e.g., Unknown Substance Intoxication). For a particular substance, if criteria are met for more than one Substance-Related Disorder, all should be diagnosed (e.g., Heroin Withdrawal; Heroin Dependence). If there are symptoms or problems associated with a particular substance but criteria are not met for any of the substance-specific disorders, the Not Otherwise Specified category can be used (e.g., Cannabis-Related Disorder Not Otherwise Specified). If multiple substances are used, all relevant Substance-Related Disorders should be diagnosed (e.g., Mescaline Intoxication; Cocaine Dependence).

Differential Diagnosis

Normal substance or medication use

Substance-Related Disorders are distinguishable from nonpathological substance use (e.g., "social" drinking) and from the use of medications for appropriate medical purposes by the presence of tolerance, withdrawal, compulsive use, or substance-related problems (e.g., medical complications, disruption in social and family relationships, vocational or financial difficulties, legal problems). Repeated episodes of Substance Intoxication are almost invariably prominent features of Substance Abuse or Dependence. However, one or more episodes of Intoxication alone are not sufficient for a diagnosis of either Substance Dependence or Abuse.

Other Substance-Related Disorders

It may sometimes be difficult to distinguish between Substance Intoxication and Substance Withdrawal. If a symptom arises during the time of dosing and then gradually abates after dosing stops, it is likely to be part of Intoxication. If the symptom arises after stopping the substance, or reducing its use, it is likely to be part of Withdrawal. Individuals with Substance-Related Disorders often take more than one substance and may be intoxicated with one substance (e.g., heroin) while withdrawing from another (e.g., diazepam). This differential is further complicated by the fact that the signs and symptoms of Withdrawal from some substances (e.g., sedatives) may partially mimic intoxication with others (e.g., amphetamines). Substance Intoxication is differentiated from Substance Intoxication Delirium, Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Onset During Intoxication, Substance-Induced Mood Disorder, With Onset During Intoxication, Substance-Induced Anxiety Disorder, With Onset During Intoxication, Substance-Induced Sexual Dysfunction, With Onset During Intoxication, and Substance-Induced Sleep Disorder, With Onset During Intoxication by the fact that the symptoms in these latter disorders are in excess of those usually associated with Substance Intoxication and are severe enough to warrant independent clinical attention. Substance Withdrawal is distinguished from Substance Withdrawal Delirium, Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder, With Onset During Withdrawal, Substance-Induced Mood Disorder, With Onset During Withdrawal, Substance-Induced Anxiety Disorder, With Onset During Withdrawal, and Substance-Induced Sleep Disorder, With Onset During Withdrawal by the fact that the symptoms in these latter disorders are in excess of those usually associated with Substance Withdrawal and are severe enough to warrant independent clinical attention.

Primary Mental Disorders

The additional Substance-Induced Disorders described above present with symptoms that resemble non-substance-induced (i.e., primary) mental disorders. An additional diagnosis of a Substance-Induced Disorder is usually not made when symptoms of preexisting mental disorders are exacerbated by Substance Intoxication or Substance Withdrawal (although a diagnosis of Substance Intoxication or Withdrawal might be appropriate). For example, Intoxication with some substances may exacerbate the mood swings in Bipolar Disorder, the auditory hallucinations and paranoid delusions in Schizophrenia, the intrusive thoughts and terrifying dreams in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and the anxiety symptoms in Panic Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Social Phobia, and Agoraphobia. Intoxication or Withdrawal may also increase the risk of suicide, violence, and impulsive behavior in individuals with a preexisting Antisocial or Borderline Personality Disorder.

Mental Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition

Many neurological (e.g., head injuries) or metabolic conditions produce symptoms that resemble, and are sometimes misattributed to, Intoxication or Withdrawal (e.g., fluctuating levels of consciousness, slurred speech, incoordination). The symptoms of infectious diseases may also resemble Withdrawal from some substances (e.g., viral gastroenteritis can be similar to Opioid Withdrawal). If the symptoms are judged to be a direct physiological consequence of a general medical condition, the appropriate Mental Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition should be diagnosed. If the symptoms are judged to be a direct physiological consequence of both substance use and a general medical condition, both a Substance-Related Disorder and a Mental Disorder Due to a General Medical Condition may be diagnosed. If the clinician is unable to determine whether the presenting symptoms are substance induced, due to a general medical condition, or primary, the appropriate Not Otherwise Specified Category should be diagnosed (e.g., psychotic symptoms with indeterminate etiology would be diagnosed as Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified).

DSM-5

Disorders

Alcohol-Related Disorders

  1. Alcohol Use Disorder
  2. Alcohol Intoxication
  3. Alcohol Withdrawal
  4. Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders
  5. Unspecified Alcohol-Related Disorder

Caffeine-Related Disorders

  1. Caffeine Intoxication
  2. Caffeine Withdrawal
  3. Other Caffeine-Induced Disorders
  4. Unspecified Caffeine-Related Disorder

Cannabis-Related Disorders

  1. Cannabis Use Disorder
  2. Cannabis Intoxication
  3. Cannabis Withdrawal
  4. Other Cannabis-Induced Disorders
  5. Unspecified Cannabis-Related Disorder

Hallucinogen-Related Disorders

  1. Phencyclidine Use Disorder
  2. Other Hallucinogen Use Disorder
  3. Phencyclidine Intoxication
  4. Other Hallucinogen Intoxication
  5. Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder
  6. Other Phencyclidine-Induced Disorders
  7. Other Hallucinogen-Induced Disorders
  8. Unspecified Phencyclidine-Related Disorder
  9. Unspecified Hallucinogen-Related Disorder

Inhalant-Related Disorders

  1. Inhalant Use Disorder
  2. Inhalant Intoxication
  3. Other Inhalant-Induced Disorders
  4. Unspecified Inhalant-Related Disorder

Opioid-Related Disorders

  1. Opioid Use Disorder
  2. Opioid Intoxication
  3. Opioid Withdrawal
  4. Other Opioid-Induced Disorders
  5. Unspecified Opioid-Related Disorder

Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Related Disorders

  1. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Use Disorder
  2. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Intoxication
  3. Sedative, Hypnotic, or Anxiolytic Withdrawal
  4. Other Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Induced Disorders
  5. Unspecified Sedative-, Hypnotic-, or Anxiolytic-Related Disorder

Stimulant-Related Disorders

  1. Stimulant Use Disorder
  2. Stimulant Intoxication
  3. Stimulant Withdrawal
  4. Other Stimulant-Induced Disorders
  5. Unspecified Stimulant-Related Disorder

Tobacco-Related Disorders

  1. Tobacco Use Disorder
  2. Tobacco Withdrawal
  3. Other Tobacco-Induced Disorders
  4. Unspecified Tobacco-Related Disorder

Other (or Unknown) Substance-Related Disorders

  1. Other (or Unknown) Substance Use Disorder
  2. Other (or Unknown) Substance Intoxication
  3. Other (or Unknown) Substance Withdrawal
  4. Other (or Unknown) Substance-Induced Disorders
  5. Unspecified Other (or Unknown) Substance-Related Disorder